Right-Wing Extremism in Eastern German Ultras

”Football is the only global idiom apart from science” —Lawrence Kitchin, football journalist, 1966.

It is a little more than 70 years after the end of the second world war, and a little more than 70 years after the fall of Nazi Germany, yet somehow it is no real surprise that we keep on seeing scandals related to right wing extremism in Europe. Somehow, the toxic idea of fascism and anti-semitism has stood the test of time and it is a real issue in some countries. Even in Germany, where the whole country was de-nazified after the Nürnberg and Frankfurt trials in the 40s and 50s, the right extremists seem to linger.

A popular conventional view is that ”Football should be separated from politics.” This popular stance is accepted without even a shadow of a doubt, yet this ascent is naive and provides the main reason why I’m writing this article. In brief, I want to discuss whether football and politics can be separated and whether it’s even possible to separate them. This article also aims briefly to discuss and expose the apparent problems regarding right-wing extremists in German football. In my analysis, I draw up on a variety of sociological sources to shed objective light on the issue. I will begin with an analysis of sociology in ultras groups, followed by another analysis of the different sets of fans, a few fan groups of a few clubs are to be included, and thereafter a discussion will follow.

Thinking Sociologically about Ultras

To be able to understand the mentality of ultras, specifically and the ”why” and “if,” we first need to establish an understanding for their situation in our society and their understanding of football itself. Using an article from 2000, called ”Towards a sociological understanding of football hooliganism as world phenomenon” by famed sport scholar Eric Dunning, I will try to clarify what lies behind the decision of dedicating one’s life to one club and one sport.

In 1966, the English football journalist Lawrence Kitchin wrote that football is one of few global idioms outside science itself and while this maxim was heavily influenced by the fact that his country had just won the world cup in 1966, it is a useful depiction of the sport we all love and enjoy on a weekly basis. Football is a global idiom that keeps on exhilarating and keeps on exciting people of all genders and ages, of all nationalities and ethnicities. It’s a global phenomenon, a universal axiom, and a way of life.

According to Dunning, football hooliganism seems to be not so much a pure sociological phenomenon, but also a product of media. Therefore, the definition of hooliganism itself becomes rather loose, Dunning observes. One commonality is the proximity of sport; thus, the term ”hooliganism” is used to depict different behaviors in the vicinity of sport, as well as behaviors fueled by the passion the sport produces.

Next, focusing on football as a social phenomenon, rather than the sport itself, can help us see how people and cultures engage in group-creating activities, and therefore creating spheres of affiliation. Due to this process, people engaged in football become part of a new culture, as well as of a new social group. Most sociologists agree that group affiliation plays a big part in criminalizing people, for example.

Moreover, Kitchin’s quote reminds us that football is more than just a sport, and that we need to treat it as such. Otherwise, we will never be able to fully understand the mentality of ultras, nor their political views. We must always remember the larger social dimension.

Dunning provides a further correction to conventional by debunking the notion that hooliganism is an English phenomenon specifically. Instead, it seems like German supporters are the most coveted when it comes to incidents regarding violence in the vicinity of football. Dunning cites a dossier that calls German fans “the division of dishonour.” Dunning further demonstrates that the numbers have certainly been going up regarding frequency of hooligan incidents in Europe outside of England. He blames this trend on the media’s fascination with fans and their violence. In Dunning’s estimation, a cycle is at work in which more media coverage leads to more violence in the stands. Interestingly enough, this observation ties together well with his notion that hooliganism can be understood as a “medial” phenomenon as well as a sociological one.

To summarize, football hooliganism as a whole involves a variety of factors. First, it’s about group affiliation. Thanks to the globalization of the sport, this factor is seen all over the world near the vicinity of football. However, hooliganism is also not only a sociological phenomenon. It can also be explained as a product of media and its hype. While this point might be of secondary importance, it’s still important to note.

Clubs and their fans

In the spring of 2017, thousands of Dresden fans invaded Karlsruhe. The Karlsruher police force had not seen anything like it, as the incident was much worse than derby matches with Stuttgart. Dynamo Dresden’s fans had invaded and they broadcast their feelings towards the German football establishment. They all wore the same military costume. The fans were applauded around Europe for their fanatic behavior and their passion, but what most failed to realize what that big packs of these different groups of ultras are grand supporters of the political Pegida movement.

It has never been a secret that Dynamo Dresden is somehow affiliated with Pegida; moreover, this link has never been denied by the club. Albeit this link does not necessarily mean that the club’s supporters are Nazis, but when it has become clear that groups of Ultras at Dynamo are Pegida-sympathizers, it is easier to wonder. It is even easier to wonder why the club itself is one of few institutions left in Dresden to not denounce Pegida.

The notions of ”Football Army Dynamo Dresden” and ”Krieg dem DFB” paint a worrying picture, and can be used to start or even fight a war against DFB, the very same institution the Dynamo ultras and many others feel needs destroying. While this probably is the reason for their costumes and their notions, there are still a few things to wonder about related to the Fanmarsch in Karlsruhe this spring.

First, why did they use the number 88 repeatedly? For the uninitiated, “88” is commonly used as a numerical symbol for right wing extremism (8 is for the eighth letter in the alphabet- H. 88 is HH. HH is an abbreviation for Heil Hitler and is very commonly used in such groups and cultures).

Dynamo Dresden’s long known, but loose affiliation to Pegida as well as their fans’ obvious right wing symbolism, is still just a string of associations, I must argue. However, there have been examples of Dresden fanatics openly supporting Pegida during the latter’s demonstrations, and in 2015, a group of 200 Dynamo supporters attacked a protest against Pegida. Due to Pegida’s rise in the city of Dresden, there has been a proper uproar among many institutions, but the biggest football club in town, Dynamo Dresden has not denounced it, while the University, the Mayor and lots of other institutions of all sorts have. It might be circumstantial, but it is evidence to a support a strong linkage between club and movement.

Recently, I stumbled upon a story from another club from former East Germany, Chemnitzer FC (CFC). This club has had its difficulties in the last few years due to poor fiscal health, yet it really is one of the biggest and most traditional clubs in Eastern Germany. Die Himmelblauen have had a few rough years, but have stayed put in 3. Liga, where they undoubtedly belong. However, everything isn’t just blue as the sky at Chemnitzer FC. Stories have emerged from the Traditionsverein that right-wing extremists have taken over the stands at their Stadion an der Gellertstrasse.

CFC have a long ultras tradition. Their ultras group UC-99 call themselves the oldest ultra in Germany. This group has been the main part of all things fanrelated in Chemnitz during the last ten years, but a few years ago a new group emerged from this very traditional Ultras-group. The new group called itself “NS-Boys,” where “NS” stands for New Society. This group has been much more aggressive and much more extreme than UC-99 and has even been banned from the new stadium by the latter. NS-Boys uses its platform to spread hate and propaganda, and for a while it worked and Chemnitzer’s reputation was on a low until UC-99 denounced the new group. The spokesman of the club, Swen-Uwe Kuhn, told the taz.de site that NS-Boys isn’t welcome at the arena due to their violent nature and their political extremism. The leader of the ultras group UC-99 agreed with this, but also claimed that NS-Boys has been a part of the scene at Chemnitzer for awhile and that there are sympathizers for the group within the club.

The situation at CFC has calmed down though. NS-Boys have been banned and there are no links between UC-99 and the right wing extremism in the area. However, it’s curious to see that of two examples so far, both have been East German. I aim to explain the reason later on.

When speaking to Germans and non-Germans about East German football, a team they always would like back is Lokomotiv Leipzig. The reason is obscure, but it might be down to the rise of RB Leipzig. The rise of the latter has created a local and national need for football traditionalism and conservatism, which isn’t at all hard to spot. While RB Leipzig have stabilized themselves in Bundesliga after only a season and a half, their neighbors in Leipzig have struggled in the Regionalliga. However, their struggle is political as well.

In Leipzig, a situation arguably more difficult than the one in Chemnitz has emerged. Lokomotiv Leipzig, or Loksche as they’re commonly called, has a long historical relationship with political matters and it really is no surprise to see them while researching for an article of this type. Lokomotiv Leipzig was one of the first football clubs in DDR, it was the first to ever win a East German cup title, but it is also a club surrounded by political scandals. Apart from Chemnitz and Dresden, where there isn’t an obvious link between the fans and right wing extremists, Lokomotiv is different. Actually, right-wing extremism has become a part of Loksche’s image, which makes it hard for them to lure new supporters. And apart from Chemnitzer FC, Loksche’s administration hasn’t denounced the extremism, but rather embraced it.

Lokomotiv’s right wing extremism and the neighbour Chemie Leipzig’s left wing extremism has created a state of political madness in the football crazed part of the city and it therefore comes as no real surprise to see the neutral RB Leipzig lure new supporters away from the extreme poles of the political scale. The political chaos in the football-crazed parts of Leipzig has made it easier for RB Leipzig to grow in the city.

Western Germany hasn’t had too many clubs with this kind of right-wing culture. There has been reports and articles on Borussia Dortmund’s ultras and their behavior, which can be seen as one of very few clubs with right-wing sympathies, even though it’s very clear that the club itself absolutely denounces the very same. It is very interesting to see the difference between eastern Germany and western. Western Germany has more or less only clubs with clear left wing sympathies, while right wing sympathizers are much more common in East Germany. Clubs like Dresden, Lokomotiv Leipzig and Chemnitzer have all had to face the threat of being seen as a right-wing sympathizing club; and although while Chemnitzer has denounced it, the other two haven’t. This of course begs the question: do these clubs sympathize with right-wing extremists or won’t they comment due to a lack of interest in political matters? It is hard to tell.

The Red Riding Hood Syndrome

A few reasons can be seen to be behind the rise of right-wing extremism among clubs in East Germany. First is the ”red riding hood-syndrome” as I like to call it. Due to a lack of competence in the ranks, they have let questionable people in to be part of their administrative system. One can put ut like this: some clubs have let the wolf in and still think it’s their kind little grandma.

The effect is also due to the de-nazification of West Germany. This process only formally took place in Western Germany in the parts controlled by United States, Great Britain and France. Therefore, there are more right-wing sympathizers in eastern Germany than in western.

Finally, this effect is also due to a overreaction after the fall communists. Consider a child who’s been held back its whole life and who’s never been allowed to do anything. What happens when that child gets the freedom it deserves? It goes wild, because it can’t handle the freedom. This is what has happened to the clubs in eastern Germany, who suddenly found themselves with more freedom in a region of Germany that wasn’t formally de-nazified.


Right-wing extremism is a big deal in German football, but the hateful ideology has almost been wiped out among football fans in the western parts of the country. However, due to a lack of competence and an apparent lack of de-nazification in the eastern parts, the ideology still lingers in clubs in eastern Germany, in some more than in others. It has become clear, through this article, that right wing extremism still is a threat to football and the reputation of football clubs in eastern Germany. It has also become clear that the de-nazification of the forties and fifties was, in fact, highly successful. Some clubs need to denounce the ideology, some clubs need to get dissolved before further damage is taken.

Politics in football is undesirable, but in fact highly inevitable.

Sources used in this article:

Dunning, Eric, Towards a sociological understanding of football hooliganism as a world phenomenon (2000), https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/35332794/dunning_-_towards_a_sociological_understanding_of_football_hooliganism_as_a_world_phenomenon_2000.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A&Expires=1510185010&Signature=h42sklYee7Gv0nNdDrJw49ESJdc%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DERIC_DUNNING-TOWARDS_A_SOCIOLOGICAL_UNDE.pdf

Einsiedler, Martin, Krieg spielen mit nationalsozialistischer symbolik, Der Tagesspiegel 15.05.2017, http://m.tagesspiegel.de/sport/dynamo-dresden-krieg-spielen-mit-nationalsozialistischer-symbolik/19803940.html

Falk, Axel, I högerextremismens grepp, SvenskaFans.com 02.02.2017, https://www.svenskafans.com/tyskland/tyskland/i-hogerextremismens-grepp-565676.aspx

Kopp, Johannes, Ultras, NS-Boys und die Kurve, Die Tageszeitung 20.09.2008, http://www.taz.de/!5175573/

Ruf, Christoph, Das hartnäckige Nazi-Problem auf der BVB-Südtribüne, Süddeutsche Zeitung 17.11.2016, http://www.sueddeutsche.de/sport/rechtsextremismus-im-fussball-das-hartnaeckige-nazi-problem-auf-der-bvb-suedtribuene-1.3252635.

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Axel Falk

Axel Falk is a 21-year old multilingual football journalist from Sweden, specializing in German football -- of all kinds! He has featured regularly for the sites Get German Football News, Fresh off the Gegenpress, and is one of the main editors at SvenskaFans' German site, the biggest sports site in Sweden. Axel's well-traveled voice graces a number of podcasts in Swedish, as well as English, and has been cited by an array of sites in English, German and Swedish. He tweets at @Falkfurt.


  1. Hey guys,

    I Know the article is from 2017. nevertheless i wanted to say something about that topic.

    I‘m from Dresden and visit most of the Dynamo Home games.
    Excuse my Bad english…

    The part about Dynamo ist just wrong and I havent read at least one comment that deals with it.
    there is NO connection between dynamo and Pegida. Ultras Dynamo made several statements against pegida and their founder Lutz Bachmann. Dynamo Dresden organized a campaign against racism , which you Can See at least Since 5 years inside of the stadium.

    Of course there are right-wing people in the fan base of Dynamo, like probably Every Single Bundesliga Club has, but they are the minority. The active fan scene including ultras Dynamo with 1000-2000 members are surely against any racism.

    The author did not a good research.

  2. Thank you UEFA for making us co-host, we can avoid the Group of Death and let our Northern Irish rivals get the beatdown by Germany!!!!!
    Also I’d like to say that if the DFB wants to get rid of ultras like it was planned, they will suffer severe consequences from German fans. Personally, I’m an HSV fan and we’re known for our ultras since getting relegated for the first time in 55 years.

  3. I find it somewhat grotesque that because some supporters are affiliated with a group like Pegida, the journalist immediately jumps from there to indirectly calling them nazis, independent of the 88 numbering stuff. Pegida and nazism/neo-nazism is not at all the same thing. Moreover, it’s quite peculiar that the article takes for granted that if you do not denounce a movement like Pegida, you are somehow considered illegitimate. To my knowledge Pegida is not a violent group.

  4. Hm. For my first post (second in order), I now realize that I talk about why I think right-wing extremism has grown in former East Germany. You explain how this right-wing extremism could establish itself among football fans. And you have some good points there (lack of competence, lack of de-nazification), which I agree with.

  5. And some minor questions and comments. First: Do the Dynamo Dresden fans really use the number 88 repeatedly? I have not seen that, but If they do, it is rather suspicious. Normally, people whould stay clear of that number, unless it is obvious that it has no connection with right-wing extermism (which is normally the case….), in order to avoid any misunderstandings. Second: You write that 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig was the first club to ever win a East German cup title? What year and cup title are you referring to here? The 1936 DFB Pokal? Third: I do not think that the dossier cited by Dunning called German fans “the division of dishonour”. I think that the dossier concluded that German fans led the “division of dishonour” (by the highest number of hooligan incidents among a number of countries surveyed). (För övrigt, “Svenska Fans” åkte med i Google translate såg jag nu, hehe.) Great article, hope to see more articles from you!

  6. Very interesting topic! And very nice to see an article from a fellow Swede. However, I do not really buy that lack of de-nazification in East Germany would be one of the main explanations for right-wing extremism among football fans in former East Germany. I admit it seems to be a likely explanation, and you have some very good arguments why so (I am not trying to say that it is not an explanation), but if you broaden the picture to the whole of former Eastern Block, it becomes less obvious. Right-wing politics (patriotism, nationalism, xenophobia, anti-semitism, anti-romanyism) are clearly more prevalent among football fans in the former Eastern Bloc than football fans in the Western Block. So what do the countries in the former Eastern Block have in common that explains this phenomenon? Lack of de-nazification? I have read your article on “Swedish Fans” and there was a comment that I found interesting. The comment mentioned the ideological vacuum that arose after the fall of the Berlin Wall. I actually think that this ideological vacuum could be a good part of the truth. When the totalitarian socialist regimes fell, people were made almost rootless in only a couple of months (both economically and socially). So I guess, many people started to search for a new identity, a new sence of belonging, a new purpose, someone to blame, etc. And there you have the business concept of right-wing extremism. And if you look at it strictly politically, you’ll see a similar pattern. Countries in the former Eastern Block are arguably more conservative and authoritarian than countries in the former Western block. National conservatism has been real political force in the former Eastern Block. I don’t think that is strange. The totalitarian socialist regimes suppressed national culture and history for almost 45 years, and then they themselves disappeared and left people with almost nothing (take note: I don’t argue for right wing politics here, I am just giving my thought about the reasons for these phenomena). These are only my thoughts. I am not saying they are true, and I know this is a complex topic. There are probably many explanations to be found. Lack of democratic experience could well be another, and so on. As I mentioned in the beginning, very interesting topic.

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